Despite the existence of many innovative building materials, the relevance of wood does not fade away. Wood is used both at the basic stages of construction, for example, creating formwork for the foundation and in subsequent operations:
- Arranging inter-floor floors
- Erecting a roof
- Interior wall decoration
- Exterior cladding of houses
Types of cutting logs
- Transverse – the log is sawn across the wood fibers. Such processing is typical for the production of decorative parquet;
- semi-radial – wood is cut at an acute angle to the fibers, after which it is used for flooring;
- Radial – the cut is carried out strictly in the middle of the trunk.
- The boards obtained by this method have high strength, a beautiful pattern, and resistance to external factors;
- Tangential – produced a little further from the middle to achieve an elegant natural pattern.
Each of the types of cuts is widely used in the procurement of lumber in construction.
Drying is an obligatory stage of wood harvesting after cutting. It can take place naturally or artificially. Large industrial enterprises usually use drying chambers for this purpose. They speed up the drying-process of the wood, reducing the moisture level to the required level in the shortest possible time.
Classification by wood species
Various tree species have a unique set of strength characteristics, their service life, and degree of flexibility. By breed, there are three types of lumber:
- made from conifers;
- made from deciduous trees;
- combining coniferous and deciduous wood.
Types of lumber
For the production of lumber, trunks of deciduous and coniferous trees are used, which, after felling, are cleaned of bark and branches. Based on the shape, type, type of wood, and methods of its processing, classification of sawn timber has been developed.
The traditional classification includes the following types of lumber:
- A beam is a building material obtained by cutting off the edges of a log to give it a square or rectangular shape. Such products are used for the construction of load-bearing structures, windows, doors, and stairs. The thickness of the timber is at least 10 cm.
- Bars are small pieces of wood that are used in construction, furniture production, and finishing works. They can have different dimensions, shapes, and degrees of processing.
- Board – represents the next stage in the processing of timber. The use of this lumber is planned based on the thickness and degree of surface finish.
- Sleeper is highly specialized lumber that is widely used in the construction of railways.
- Croaker is a type of board flat on one side and convex and semicircular on the other. It is used as a facade cladding for decorative purposes. A variety of slabs is a blockhouse. Along the edges, there are grooves for fastening during finishing facade work.
- Obapol – is made from the outer parts of the log, waste from the production of timber. Has a smooth and swollen side. If necessary, it is cleared of the bark.
- Rounded logs – the use of this type of lumber is typical for constructing houses (log cabins). For assembly, exclusively flat tree trunks of a specific diameter are used without branches. In the process of making logs, the bark and outer layers of the wood are removed. The material is given an ideal shape, after which grooves or locks are cut out. As a constructor, the logs are assembled along the tracks, due to which amazing structural strength is achieved. Log buildings are distinguished by high aesthetic properties and do not require interior finishing.
- Profiled bar – the basis for it is a regular bar, on which connecting grooves are cut by planing or milling. The structures of this material are also highly durable and long-lasting with proper care. Among the advantages of buildings from such a bar, they note the absence of the need to prepare a powerful foundation.
- Glued laminated timber is made from boards by gluing and pressing them. This lumber is strong, durable, which justifies its frequent use in constructing houses of ideal shape.
Classification of sawn timber by grade
Selective grade. The materials do not have pronounced defects, traces of knots, or deep cracks due to drying out of the logs. A small number of healthy knots is possible: 2 per 1 m of the product. It is used to create premium pieces of furniture for finishing cars of an elite level.
First grade. Provides more knots and cracks. The material should not have rottenness, rot, or mold. Used in construction.
Second grade. Deep cracks, small wormholes are allowed. Rottenness and rot are excluded. Such lumber is used in the construction and furniture industry.
Third grade. A small amount of rot, wormholes over the entire surface and through cracks are allowed. The material is used for the construction of awnings, pallets, boxes.
Fourth grade. This includes a wood of the lower class, which is used to create structures and items that do not require strength and durability.
Where lumber is used
This building material is involved in almost all spheres of human life. However, most wood is still used in building construction, furniture manufacturing, and interior and exterior decoration. To improve the natural properties, wood is often treated with chemicals that make it resistant to moisture, fungus, mold, fire resistance – and extend its service life.