Isostatic pressing is process in which the overall density of a component is increased by removing excess liquids and voids. This usually happens during a two-part process to ensure that the material is structurally strong and withstands massive amounts of force when under stress. The component, usually a powder, is first subjected to extreme temperatures to remove moisture, and a high vacuum is also applied to remove any impurities it may contain. While this is happening, inert gases are introduced into the enclosed environment until internal pressure creates a uniform metallurgical bond within the grain-sized particles. As a result of the process of hot isostatic pressing, metal sand with a density.
One of the most famous examples of hot isostatic pressing is the cladding process. By infusing a brutal, rare metal or metal powder into the outer surface of much more familiar material, manufacturers can produce cost-effective products with extended life because they are much more durable. While this has been somewhat achievable by combining two metals through metallurgy, hot isostatic pressing does not connect two metals to create an alloy. This allows the process to apply to many other materials that were not previously possible, such as metal shells on ceramics or plastics.
One of the main benefits of the HIP for many industries is the significant reduction in waste components, allowing manufacturers to save up to 30% on material and labor costs. Previous conventional methods resulted in large amounts of scrap being left behind in the final stages of construction. Since rare materials such as tungsten carbide were costly, this was a significant problem. Since this process can reproduce complex geometries at almost any scale, very little metal is lost during the final molding process.
The first implementations of the hot isostatic process can be dated back to 1955 to make complex, homogeneous materials that could not otherwise be obtained by gluing or welding. While this technology was created to serve the aerospace industry to protect against external pressure placed on spacecraft, it quickly became popular in the oil, automotive, and medical industries. Even rocket engines and deep-space satellites have been built using this process because there is simply no other way to make them more durable. Since the scope of shapes and sizes that can be created is almost limitless,